Error-related EEG potentials (ErrP) can be used for brain-machine interfacing (BMI). Decoding of these signals, indicating subject’s perception of erroneous system decisions or actions can be used to correct these actions or to improve the overall interfacing system. Multiple studies have shown the feasibility of decoding these potentials in single-trial using different types of experimental protocols and feedback modalities. However, previously reported approaches are limited by the use of long inter-stimulus intervals (ISI>2s). In this work we assess if it is possible to overcome this limitation. Our results show that it is possible to decode error-related potentials elicited by stimuli presented with ISIs lower than 1s without decrease in performance. Furthermore, the increase in the presentation rate did not increase the subject workload. This suggests that the presentation rate for ErrP-based BMI protocols using serial monitoring paradigms can be substantially increased with respect to previous works.
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The ability to recognize errors is crucial for efficient behavior. Numerous studies have identified electrophysiological correlates of error recognition in the human brain (error-related potentials, ErrPs). Consequently, it has been proposed to use these signals to improve human-computer interaction (HCI) or brain-machine interfacing (BMI). Here, we present a review of over a decade of developments towards this goal. This body of work provides consistent evidence that ErrPs can be successfully detected on a single-trial basis, and that they can be effectively used in both HCI and BMI applications. We first describe the ErrP phenomenon and follow up with an analysis of different strategies to increase the robustness of a system by incorporating single-trial ErrP recognition, either by correcting the machine’s actions or by providing means for its error-based adaptation. These approaches can be applied both when the user employs traditional HCI input devices or in combination with another BMI channel. Finally, we discuss the current challenges that have to be overcome in order to fully integrate ErrPs into practical applications. This includes, in particular, the characterization of such signals during real(istic) applications, as well as the possibility of extracting richer information from them, going beyond the time-locked decoding that dominates current approaches.
Error-related potentials (ErrP) have been increasingly studied in psychophysical experiments as well as for brain-machine interfacing. In the latter case, the generalisation capabilities of ErrP decoders is a crucial element to avoid frequent recalibration processes, thus increasing their usability. Previous studies have suggested that ErrP signals are rather stable across recording sessions. Also, studies using protocols of serial stimuli presentation show that these potentials do not change significantly with the presentation rate. Here we complement these studies by analysing the decoding generalisation capabilities. Using data from monitoring experiments, we evaluate how much the performance degrades when tested in a condition different than the one the decoder was trained with. Moreover, we compare different spatial filtering techniques to see which preprocessing steps yield less-sensitive features for ErrP decoding.