In general, concurrent augmented feedback has been shown to effectively enhance learning in complex motor tasks. However, to optimize technical systems that are intended to reinforce motor learning, a systematic evaluation of different augmented feedback designs is required. Until now, mainly visual augmented feedback has been applied to enhance learning of complex motor tasks. Since most complex motor tasks are mastered in response to information visually perceived, providing augmented concurrent feedback in a visual manner may overload the capacities of visual perception and cognitive processing. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the practicability of auditory feedback designs supporting a three-dimensional rowing-type movement in comparison with visual feedback designs. We term a feedback design practical if the provided information can easily be perceived and interpreted, and immediately be used to support the movement. In a first experiment, it became evident that participants could interpret three-dimensional auditory feedback designs based on stereo balance, pitch, timbre, and/or volume. Eleven of 12 participants were able to follow the different target movements using auditory feedback designs as accurately as with a very abstract visual feedback design. Visual designs based on superposition of actual and target oar orientation led to the most accurate performance. Considering the first experimental results, the feedback designs were further developed and again evaluated. It became evident that a permanent visual display of the target trajectories could further enhance movement accuracy. Moreover, results indicated that the practicability of the auditory designs depends on the polarity of the mapping functions. In general, both visual and auditory concurrent feedback designs were practical to immediately support multidimensional movement. In a next step, the effectiveness to enhance motor learning will be systematically evaluated.
Visual and Auditory Augmented Concurrent Feedback in a Complex Motor Task
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